July 1862 opens with the last of the Seven Days Battles, the Battle of Malvern Hill. Although the bulk of the Seven Days Battles (Beaver Creek Dam, Gaine's Mill, et. al.) occurred in June, most Northern newpapers printed little information until several days into July. The remainder of July saw little action on the battlefield relative to the previous or following months, giving the newspapers time to focus on the implications of McClellan's retreat to Harrison's Landing.
In addition to the Battle of Malvern Hill, other prominent battles included the Battle of Cotton Plant (Hill's Plantation) and the First Battle of Murfreesboro'.
News of McClellan's retreat also reached the U.K. in July, and as the prospect of a longer war increased, talk of intervention by France, the U.K. or both increased, and was particularly favored by the South.
In addition to the celebration of the second 4th of July since the war began, the continuing shelling and siege of Vicksburg featured prominently in the columns of papers in both the North and the South.
Also of importance was the response to Lincoln's call for 300,000 3-year enlistments which spurred significant debate as to whether there would be a draft. The New York Times followed the progress of the recruiting efforts daily.
Highlights of the July 1862 Edition:
- Lincoln notifies border states of intent to issue Emancipation Proclamation
- Battle of Malvern Hill a.k.a. Battle of Poindexter's Farm
- First Battle of Murfreesboro'
- Battle of Cotton Plant, a.k.a. Battle of Hill's Plantation or Battle of Cache River
- Morgan's raids in Kentucky
- The C.S.S. Arkansas makes a daring raid up the Mississippi on the Union fleet
- Gen. T.J. "Stonewall" Jackson (CSA) is "killed" near Richmond in the Seven Days Battles
- Chamberlain accepts Colonelcy of the 20th Maine
- Gen. Hunter (USA) organizes the 1st South Carolina, which will later become the U.S. 33rd Colored Infantry a.k.a. Buffalo Soldiers
- Gen. Van Dorn (CSA) is assumes command of the Mississippi District
- Gen. Sterling Price (CSA) takes command of the Army of the West
- Gen. Halleck (USA.) is named General-in-Chief of the U.S. Army
- Gen. Grant (USA) takes command of the Army of the Tennessee and the Army of the Mississippi
- Lincoln issues call to raise 300,000 3-year troops
- Belle Boyd arrested as a spy
- Congress authorizes the Medal of Honor
- The Pacific Railroad Act creates the Union Pacific Railroad
- Stevens demonstrates what he called 'Tractomotives' and described that they would "on any ordinary road easily carry two of the heaviest Columbiads at the rate of from four to six miles an hour"
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